Beginning with the launch of the Internet, enabling technologies have expanded the number of formats that are widely used. Images, audio, video, data, code, and other forms of digital content are common in the researcher’s workflow and have become a necessary part of scholarly communications. Meanwhile, scholarly publishing has remained predominantly page based and dependent on PDFs, though that may be about to change.
DOIs signal research content
DOIs have been associated with scholarly publishing since Crossref began providing connections between research articles in 1999. When Datacite was launched a decade later, they expanded to providing DOIs for datasets and other research objects. Then three years ago, Crossref released a schema for Preprints as the precursor to the published work. Amy Brand’s recent post in the Scholarly Kitchen noted that 87% of Crossref DOIs are assigned to journal articles and book chapters, with only 5.5% assigned to conferences. The remaining items are almost all text based works.
As a result, DOIs have primarily represented published works and data as supplemental material to the Version of Record. This signaled that research had been reviewed, curated, published, and preserved for future reference as part of the scholarly record. Given that library budgets funded these publications, preservation was an essential requirement as the digital content was no longer housed within each institution.
Born digital content expands
Recently, scholarly communications has come to refer to a variety of research outputs that are part of the scholar’s workflow beyond publications. If these works in other formats are assigned DOIs they can become part of the research universe. And with the use of standard identifiers such as ORCID for authors, and FundRef for funders, these works in different formats can be more easily discovered.
The evolving image below is a work in progress that groups types of content based on shared characteristics. From the left to the right – media connected with societies, print and data formats, media used to promote the research.
Most scholarly societies organize annual meetings so that scholars can discuss their work with colleagues. Originally popular in the sciences, posters have recently become very popular in other disciplines, often taking up considerable space near the exhibits. Graduate students at some institutions have deposited the image of their poster in their library’s institutional repository and then linked to it on their CV as they applied for positions. Posters have evolved from print tacked to a board to digital presentation to interactive digital presentations. They are typically up for one day and then gone. However, the digital version makes it easy to store along with a searchable abstract. Visibility increases utility – for the author, the conference attendees as well as those who did not attend and were able to discover it months after the meeting.
Conference management companies such as the Conference Exchange record presentations as audio with slides or video for societies of all sizes. Conferences with multi-track sessions can make these available to attendees who couldn’t attend both sessions or were sidetracked by a conversation and missed a session. The cost of recording can be offset in part by offering access to non-attendees for a fee. This is an opportunity to make this body of work more accessible to a global audience including many who are unable to attend. If Accessibility guidelines are adhered to, that further increases the audience by offering multiple formats. Ideally all media would be accompanied by a transcript linked to the work, though that may not be economically feasible.
New companies are emerging in our space as service providers to organizations, offering support for DOIs assigned to a much broader array of outputs. Two examples are Cadmore Media and Morressier.
- Cadmore Media states “Don’t post your videos. Publish them.” They support streaming audio and video that features advanced navigation, searching and skimming options, and support for extended metadata. Descriptive content and metadata ensures that these formats will integrate with a society’s other published works, making them more discoverable and accessible.
- Morressier states on their home page “Where research gets discovered”. They offer an abstract, poster and presentations management system designed for conference organizers. It begins with abstract management, onsite support, post meeting access, and analytics.
The idea of publishing media makes sense when we consider the review process involved in selecting presentations (or papers) and posters for meetings. In fields such as computer science and electrical engineering, the conference proceedings are more timely, and may be more important than the journals in their field. The origin of ‘publish’ is publicus or publicare in Latin which translates to ‘make public’ or ‘make generally known’. So why shouldn’t publishing expand to include media?
Potential for Societies
The opportunity for societies is to leverage an existing body of research content that has already been reviewed and made public in a time-limited way. Although it requires an additional investment, if the economics work, integrating these formats into the scholarly record could be a significant advantage for societies and associations. Some researchers may opt out for different reasons just as there are variables that affect the availability of dissertations. However, for those presenting early, partial or null results in the form of posters, saving their work will fill a gap in the research cycle where many findings that are valuable, may never be published. This is a substantial body of work that is now ephemeral in nature and could become part of the scholarly record.
A challenge for societies is that the conference software used to record, and host posters and presentations is likely in a database that functions as a silo. It will be interesting to see if conference vendors such as Confex will adapt their programs to accommodate metadata requirements or if the emerging companies will grow and expand to serve a broader association market.
Creation of a DOI for Conferences
Crossref and Datacite formed a working group last year that has defined the metadata structure for a conference DOI. It appears to be ready for a pilot stage. In the EU, the Freya Project, which is funded as part of their Horizon 2020 program, is focused on extending the infrastructure for persistent identifiers as a core component of open research. A participant in the conference metadata working group, they are seeking to disambiguate conferences, ensure that conference reviewers receive recognition for their service, improve the visibility of conferences, link papers from the same conference, and distinguish actual research conferences from those organized by predatory publishers.
Promotion of Research Content
It has become increasingly important to funders and academic research institutions that their investment in research produces results that matter to society. While only a portion of faculty will make time for a podcast, a blog, or to create a video, many more may participate in social media. Publishers can invest visual abstracts that can boost social media impact such as those created by Cactus featured on their impact.science site. Another option is videos such as though created by Research Square. Will these in time also be assigned DOIs?
While I’m not surprised that these changes are occurring, it requires an adjustment in my reference points. It feels as though the very definition of publishing is expanding to include different formats. Will it also adopt the same expectations and markers of quality? Is the same level of preservation necessary if it isn’t required by a library budget? There are many questions to be answered and many will be dependent on the economics and rewards of the stakeholders in scholarly communications.